A few years ago the Converged Networks, also known as Next Generation Networks or NGN ( Next Generation Network ), has been widely publicized and came to be present in our lives. Operators, corporations, and ISPs already make targeted investments in equipment and technologies to serve the NGN networks. Convergence of data, video, and voice ( triple play ) into a single infrastructure has also become a reality in the telecommunications market, in companies and in our homes. But how did this happen and what is its relationship with Voice over IP (VoIP)?
In order for network convergence to reach current status, a long way was needed, from the creation of the TCP / IP standard in the late 1960s to Ethernet in the 1970s and its constant evolution to the large-scale use of networks fiber optics and VoIP technology. In parallel, there was also the contribution of the growing popularization of computers, fixed and mobile telephony, internet and providers in the last three decades.
VoIP: a low-cost solution
The growth of voice communication solutions through Voice Over IP ( VoIP ) technology, seeks to offer an integrated and low-cost solution that can effectively replace conventional telephony. For this, users will have available in a single network data services, telephony and multimedia content such as TV, radio, cinema, videoconference, digital texts, and distance learning.
The VoIP is not exactly new. It had its initial development in Israel in the 1990s by VocalTec Communications, but it only became popular in the 2000s, by increasing the speed of transmission links, codecs that could efficiently perform voice coding and compression, and also by the emergence of SIP, which until today is the most used protocol for VoIP.
What is SIP?
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP ) provides a low-cost, open, and secure solution for the privacy of the telephone conversation. It is an OSI (application layer in the TCP / IP model) session layer protocol that can establish, modify, and terminate multimedia sessions – where session is considered to be a data exchange between a UAs ( User Agent ) association – as per for example, a telephone call over the Internet (ROSENBERG, SCHULZRINNE and CAMARILLO et al, 2011).
SIP is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard that uses the “request-response” model to initiate interactive communication sessions between users. Inspired by other text-based Internet protocols such as SMTP (e-mail) and HTTP (web pages), it was developed to establish, change and terminate calls from one or more users on a network in a completely content-independent manner of call data. Like HTTP, SIP takes application controls to the terminal, eliminating the need for a switchboard. Historically, RFC 2543 was released with some bugs and vague definitions in its text, but after some products have been fixed, the 9 ‘bis’ version has finally been released that clarifies and defines the new RFC 3261.
This simplified mode has led several manufacturers to develop standards-based devices and solutions, increasing their popularity by becoming the main parameter of the VoIP protocol for the market.
Although the protocol allows for a peer – to – peer (P2P) connection without the need for an intermediary, the common framework for service implementation involves terminals known as the UA – User Agent (IP phone, softphone, ATA, or an HGU such as Cianet CTS2742BW), other server elements.
Sip trunks explained SIP servers are applications that receive requests, perform some operation, and return a response to the requesting device. There are three types of SIP servers: proxy server, redirection server, and log server. Because they are logical entities, more than one SIP server can be hosted on the same physical device (YOSHIOKA, 2003).
The proxy server acts as a facilitator of SIP message exchange, being the element responsible for the location of the target UA of the request. When it receives a SIP request, the proxy analyzes for which domain the message is destined and obtains the address of the proxy server of the destination domain, performing the forwarding.
The proxy can maintain a timer and records for all the requests and responses it receives and passes. The proxy uses this information in future processing of messages belonging to the same dialog. It is this information that will generate the billing ( billing ) used for accounting, billing or judicial interception purposes.
Like a proxy server, a redirection server also assists in the process of locating the recipient of a SIP request but does not forward SIP requests. Instead, it only responds to the originating UA which is the contact address to reach the target UA, or a next hop address to a proxy server or other nearest redirection server, without actually engaging in communication (YOSHIOK A, 2003).
A log server, also called Registrar, will contain the base location of the UA. Upon receiving the REGISTER request, the registration server updates the database used by the proxy and redirection servers for user location and responds with a message that the registration has been successful.
Solutions that allow telephone communication over the Internet with the use of VoIP should also be concerned with security, availability, and service quality aspects since the telephone communication that travels in data packets is critical for delays and loss of packets. The voice traffic, due to its characteristics, must be transmitted continuously and without intervals of silence, so that the message is intelligible by the listener.
What are the benefits of GIF and File converter?
File conversion has become a norm in everyday business. Every now and then we want to get the files converted from one format to another. You can either install GIF and File converters or use the online ones available.
GIF converter can be easily found online. However, many businesses still consider using the software that are to be installed. Even though they can be used as well, utilizing an online converter is much convenient. Here are some of the benefits listed of using them:
- No need to install applications
There is no need to install an external application when it comes to online GIF and File converters. It can be pretty much frustrating while installing files on the computer. It will not even consume extra storage space on the computer. There is also no need to go through a lengthy and time-consuming installation process. Single files can be converted immediately. This hassle can easily be overcome. This is perhaps the most important benefit being offered by online converters.
- Files can be easily shared
Sometimes businesses need to convert and then share the files with each other. Using an online converter is the most convenient option in such situation. Having a desktop application means you need to go through additional hassle in order to convert the files. There is no need to go through such process when using an online file converter. Online GIF and file converters can be of immense importance in such context.
- Protection of files
When converting the files online, there is no need to worry about its security. Online conversion tools have already taken the relevant steps to ensure that the files being uploaded are secure. This is why you don’t need to consider twice whether the file contains any sort of sensitive or personal information. The protection being offered to file while being converted is at its maximum. Therefore it can be stored in the cloud and shared without any additional problems or concerns.
- Maintains the quality of files
There are some of the misconceptions that the qualities of files are being compromised during the conversion process. Almost all the online GIF and file converters make sure that the quality is being sustained throughout. There is no additional effort being required to preserve the originality of files. Even if a professional document is being converted, there is no need to worry about the quality of it during conversion.
- It is free
This is one of the most compelling benefits being offered by such converters. Most users are worried whether it will charge any monetary amount or not. Fortunately, such converters are usually free of cost. On the other hand, a number of desktop applications cost some money. Therefore, you can avail the service in a completely free of cost manner.
Even though this is not an exhaustive list, above are some of the most important benefits of using a GIF and file converter listed.
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The Schwinn 220 Recumbent Exercise Bike
There are plenty of reasons to set up a home gym, but it’s not always practical especially when you have a limited budget. One of the biggest mistakes is buying a fancy machine only to see it end up in the garage or attic a few months down the line. You always want to combine a reasonable price with solid performance for something that could potentially revolutionize your fitness routine. If you are ready to amp things up with a quality piece of exercise equipment, then the Schwinn 220 is an excellent choice. It’s reasonably priced for something that offers such an efficient way to get back into shape or to keep yourself healthy. It’s not the cheapest product on the market, but it’s a smart investment for anyone who wants a comprehensive work out.
Almost everybody has tried working out on exercise bike at some point or another. Recumbent technology takes things one step further to offer you a workout that won’t put unnecessary strain on your body. You get less stress on your joints and muscles than you would if you were jogging, and it’s definitely better on your back than a regular exercise bike. The Schwinn 220 offers an extremely comfortable work out while being able to get your heart rate up at the same time. You’ll appreciate the ability to go at your own pace and don’t be surprised if your overall endurance level improves dramatically within just a few weeks.
Assembly for this machine is relatively easy since there aren’t a lot of loose bits and pieces. Just follow the instructions carefully and you’ll be ready to go in about half an hour. You should also take the time to read through the included instruction book and training guide so that you get full use from this model. On the surface it might seem like a simple exercise bike but there is actually a lot of variety included in the package. You can choose from 16 different resistance levels so that you can find your most comfortable starting point.
There are also 12 separate workout programs that will allow you to focus on different types of workouts. You can create profiles and track information while you work out in order to fine-tune your approach. You can also take personal fitness tests and record information related to calories burned, heart rate, and distance pedaled. All of this means you can make your workout routine as simple or complicated as you like as these options cater to both rookies and veterans alike.
In addition to being user-friendly, the Schwinn 220 is also one of the most practical recumbent exercise bikes on the market. It has a comfortable seat and solid footholds that will ensure a smooth workout with maximum results. You’ll enjoy being able to set up this bike in front of your big screen TV or being able to read using the attached magazine rack. It’s as close to getting a workout from sitting on your couch as you can get, and it’s quite portable as well. It can either serve as the centerpiece of your home gym or you can easily store it in a closet until you’re ready to tackle a new fast weight loss program in 2019. Overall, this is a quality addition to any existing home gym or the perfect way to start one off.
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